Introduction, Determining Plant Size, Biogas Plant Construction Manual Fixed-dome Digester
A biogas plant is an anaerobic digester of organic material for the purposes of treating waste and concurrently generating biogas fuel. The treated waste is a nutrient-rich, nitrogen-rich fertilizer while the biogas is mostly methane gas with inert gases including carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Biogas plants are a preferred alternative to burning dried animal dung as a fuel and can be used for the treatment of human waste. Other feedstock which can be used includes plant material, non-meat or grease food-wastes, and most types of animal dung. Over a million biogas plants have been constructed in the developing world for treatment of organic wastes, alternative energy supply to direct burning in the home, and overall improvement of human health and the environment. Many factors for selection of feedstock and site location must be researched before deciding to install a biogas plant. Successful construction of the biogas plant requires a proper design and adherence to follow correct construction methods. The success or failure of any biogas plant primarily depends upon the quality of construction work. The following instructions are based on the step-by-step instructions from the Government of Nepal Biogas Support Program Gobar Gas and Agricultural Equipment Development Company of Nepal has developed the design for model 2047 biogas plant. This biogas plant model has become prolific across Asia and is known as a fixed-dome plant. The advantages of the fixed dome plant include the simplicity of design, few moving parts, low cost to construct and low maintenance. The disadvantages when compared to a floating-dome digester are primarily the inability to store gas for use on demand; gas from the fixed dome digester must be used as generated or expelled to avoid damaging the digester.
2. Determining Plant Size
This manual includes design and construction material quantities for the Gobar biogas plant models of 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 cubic meters capacity. Design and size of a plant other than mentioned above is feasible and a skilled engineer should be consulted for deviations from the provided designs. The biogas plant size is dependent on the average daily feed stock and
expected hydraulic retention time of the material in the biogas system. Generally, 24 kilograms of feedstock complimented with 24 liters of water per day with a hydraulic retention time of 35 days will require a 4-cubic meter plant. Table 2.1 below gives some relevant data about the six different sizes of biogas plants presented in this manual.
The biogas plant detailed in this manual consists of five main structures or components: 1. InletTank; 2. Digester Vessel; 3. Dome; 4. Outlet Chamber; and 5. Compost Pits. The required quantity of feedstock and water is mixed in the inlet tank and the slurry is discharged to the digester vessel for digestion. The gas produced through methanogenesis in the digester is collected in the dome. The digested slurry flows to the outlet tank through the manhole. The slurry then flows through the overflow opening in the outlet tank to the compost pit. The gas is supplied from the dome to the point of application through a pipeline.When a biogas plant is underfed the gas production will be low; in this case, the pressure of the gas might not be sufficient to fully displace the slurry in the outlet chamber. It is important to design the plant keeping hydrostatic pressure higher at the inlet tank than the outlet tank. The hydrostatic pressure from slurry in the inlet and outlet tanks will pressurize the biogas accumulated in the dome. If too much material is fed into the digester and the volume of gas is consumed, the slurry may enter the gas pipe and to the appliances.